Hack the System [Windows XP]

Well, this is a simple method to hack into other logins. But can be useful at times.

Requirements:

è    Windows XP

è    Multiple User Logins

è    Curiosity 😉  

è    50 seconds from your computing life 😉

 

Procedure:

è    Simply log in to your account.

è    Open up the command prompt.

è    Then type “net user”. You will get a list of all users.

net user

net user

è    Now type,

net user  user name to be hacked*

è    Then it’ll ask you to enter a password. Remember, the things you type will not be viewed. Press enter, and then retype the password to confirm.

Now the existing password of other user is replaced by the password you entered.

 

*** If your account is a ‘limited’ one this method won’t work.

Get what you wanted and run for your life……… 😉         Happy Hacking.

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Configuring+Understanding ‘/etc/fstab’

             If there are any Linux users who still have difficulties in accessing and mounting their hard drives and other storage media, hope this post will help them. fstab contains some of configuration info about your hard drives and partitions such as file system types and mount points. Sometimes because of its mis-configuration it gives headaches to user. So in a moment like that you should have to know to configure by our own. Before editing any of your configuration files remember to backup them as a habit. You can edit this file using any of your text editors but you need to have root privileges. Here I’m opening ‘fstab’ config file using nano.

nano /etc/fstab

nano /etc/fstab

This is what I got….. yep it seems like a shuffled puzzle for the first time!

 

My fstab looks shit!

My fstab looks shit!

 

 Let’s take a hand written example to make it clear. Then follow its explanation.

#etc/fstab: static file system information

#

#<file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>

proc                  /proc                proc      defaults    0                0           #line1

/dev/hdb4         /                       ext3      defaults     1                1           #line2

/dev/hdb2         swap                swap     defaults    0                0            #line3

/dev/hdb3         /home              ext3      defaults     1                1            #line4

/dev/hdb1        /media/hdb1     ext3       auto          0                0           #line5

/dev/hda1        /media/hda1     ntfs        defaults     0               0           #line6

/dev/scd0        /media/cdrom0 auto       ro,noauto,user,exec 0 0          #line7

/dev/fd0          /media/flopp0   auto      ro,noauto,user,sync 0 0          #line8

 

::::::::::::: Explanation ::::::::::::

1st and 2nd columns :: Its easy 1st explains the device and 2nd explains the mount point.

 

3rd column :: exlapins the ‘file system.’

                   As mentioned about it can be ext3, swap, ext2, reiserfx, vfat, ntfs or any other file system. Did you notice line two? Its something different. “proc” file system is a special file system used by the kernel to store hardware information. Some programs retrieve hardware info from this system. Most of the time proc file system will be a small space in your root partition.

                        auto” option is also used. Its not a file system. It simply means that the file system type is detected automatically. Media devices which vary its file system like cdroms and floppies can have this “auto” option.

4th column :: list all the mount options for the device or partition.

            Options should explain in detail. User can define more than one option using “,” to separate them. Here I m considering about only the most common options,

 

user and nouser “user” option allows normal users to mount the device. If you use “nouser” you should have to be root to mount it.

***Most of new Linux users tell that they can’t mount their windows partitions and other media types. The reason for that is “nouser” come in default. So new users, if you  have mounting problems feel free to open fstab and change the “nouser” option to “user”.

 

auto and noauto “auto” option allows the device to mount automatically at the bootup. “noauto” option stops mounting the devices at the startup. But allows, mounting it manually after logged in.

***If you are new to Linux mint5 Elyssa, you would be facing to this problem. Some of your media devices are not mounted at the startup and if you want them to be, check your fstab file. Most of the times you want find any record/entries for this troublesome drives. So you should have to write them manually. And remember to set its mount option as “auto”.

 

ro mount the file system read-only

rw mount the file system read-write

***”ro” and “rw” can also give probs to new users because some times they cant writ into windows partitions and some times even into Linux partitions. So now you can understand how to solve that problem.

 

sync and async defines how the input and output to the file system should be done. If it is “sync” it is done synchronously. If its “async” inputs and outputs are done asynchronously.

            Think about a file operation like coping some data into a floppy. If its set to “sync” the physical changes are made to the floppy at the same time. But if its “async” the physical changes are done after some time when copping commands are executed. Maybe changes will occur when you’re trying to unmount the floppy.

 

 

 defaults uses all the default options.

exec and noexec exec” allows the user to execute binaries which contains in that partition. “noexec” stops it.

 

5th column :: It is for back utility (dump). If its set to ‘0’ dump will ignore the file system. If ‘1’  backup the file system.

6th column :: This is for fsck (file system check utility). if it is ‘1’ fsck checks the file system. If not dont check( fsck is explained very shortly. I ll put a new post about ‘fsck’ in future).

Finally remember to place your root partition’s record/entry at top of the fstab. Do what ever modifications after the root partition’s entry. So it want change its level. Because the order which they are arranged is important. Before every thing, system should find the root partition and mount it. Then others will be mounted inside the root.

            If your still have questions, doughs or problems with fstab+ mounting feel free to leave them as comments.

My Linux is in My Pen Drive [PuppyLinux4.1].

Yes, by all it means now it is also inside my pen drive. But what’s so special?

Answer: mm… its only 94MB of capacity, it allows persistent data and it has all the features of a normal distro . So what else I need? 😉

PyppyLinux4.1
PyppyLinux4.1

Haha ..  Let me explain. I heard about a very small Linux distro by a friend of mine. So I looked forward to find out more. It was ‘Puppy Linux4.1.2’. You can also download it from www.puppylinux.com. First I thought ‘oh its only 94 mega bytes… What the hell it should be some kind of useless crap’. But at the end it really pissed me about my under estimation! As I mentioned now its in my pen drive. its clean, stable and very user-friendly.  I spend only about 8 minutes to install, maybe less. It only gets seconds to boot into the RAM. Then you are good to go. This distro is specially designed for hot plugs.  You can plug it to any machine which has minimum of 48MB of RAM and 8MB of Shared Video. But you want be loosing your default settings and other saved data. That’s what I meant by ‘persistent data’. Puppy asks you to save all your settings into the drive you are currently using. Mostly it’ll be a small file with some allocated mega bytes in your pen. Not like other Linux distros, you need not have to make special partitions or file systems in your pen drive or other device. If its default file system is FAT, You can install Linux on FAT. That’s because the installed location only contains compressed files and at the bootstrap it uncompress them to the RAM.

Puppy 4.1.2 has two graphical servers. ‘X.org’ and ‘Xvesa’ (I use Xvesa). Its default desktop mostly looks like KDE. It gives ‘abiword 2.6.3’ as a word processor. I felt it like Open Office while I’m using it. It has ‘SeaMonky1.1.11’ for browsing (something like Firefox). It has a handy Personal Organizer call ‘OSMO’. Like the other organizers it allows you to maintain your contacts, tasks and calendar. Like that ‘Calc’ for spread sheets, ‘InkscapeLIte’ and ‘mtpait3.21’ a simple GTK paining program for art work, ‘Geany 0.12’ the fast & light weight IDE, The puppy PDF converter (this is the first time I got a PDF converter as a default of the OS) and it also provide CD ripping tools like ‘Ripoff CD song ripper’  and also a number of CD/DVD burning software.

A special thing I saw about Puppy Linux is it covers all the main requirements of a normal user.  Finally have to say something about its ‘Gxin 0.5.9 media player’. It runs almost all types of media formats (I personally experienced good results by running following media formats: – .avi,.mp4,.mp3,.3gp,.DAT,.mpg,.divx,.wmv,) .

You really have to try out ‘Puppy Linux’ in your machine. And feel free to comment your thoughts.

Editing the GRUB ~ HowTo

This is about customizing the grub menu which appears at the bootup. The things in this menu contains in a file called ‘menu.lst’ and its located in ‘/boot/grub’ dir. Its not difficult to edit this but bit risky if you don’t do it correctly. So for your safe its better to backup this ‘menu.lst’ file first. Then fire up your terminal/konsole, get root privileges and type,

nano

nano

 

Now you see ‘menu.lst’ through the terminal/konsole in edit mode. It looks very complex at the very first moment. But if you take a further look, you ll notice that most of the things are just comments. This HowTo explains only 4 useful edits.

 

  1. Changing The Default Timeout

Fined out the following phrase, then all you have to do is to assign the time for your choice in seconds. At the moment its default value is 10 seconds

 

Changing The Default Timeout

Changing The Default Timeout

 2.Changing The Titles

This means you can change the titles which appear at the startup. To do this scroll down the menu until you fined “##End Default Options##”,

Changing The Titles

Changing The Titles

Here you can find all the titles/names of Linux and non-Linux operating systems. You can just edit them! Mm.. Well.. I have edit “windows XP as windows sucksp”. Sorry windows folks..  My bad!

Sorry

Sorry

 

    3. Removing Items

There are things that are not useful for some users. Things like ‘recovery mode, memtest and windows divider (if you have windows)’. Erase the titles and their belongings with no fear. But its better if you can leave them by only commenting.

Removing Items

Removing Items

 

4. Setting up the default OS

This option is at the very top of the file,

 Setting up the default OS

Setting up the default OS

In menu.lst, each ‘title/entry’ has a number starting from 0. So count down the titles from 0 utile you fined the OS which you want to set as the default. Then give the relevant value. Please note that if you have changed any titles into comments, leave them without counting.

            If you are done with editing, finally press Ctrl+x to exit. Then it ll ask to save any changes you made. Reboot the system to check. Then if something goes wrong remember to replace the menu.lst with the file you backup early. You can use a live CD for that. Feel free to experiment further. Happy computing!

Ubuntu, Kubuntu or Linux Mint5 Elyssa?

ubuntu8.10

ubuntu8.10

Well first I should thank to Canonical guys for sending me their latest versions of Ubuntu and Kubuntu. I mean ubuntu8.10  and kubuntu8.10. They are doing hell a lot of work to give their best OS to Linux community. I appreciate you guys a lot.

Lets start with ‘ubuntu8.10’. Yes it was nice. It took about 24 minutes for the installation (with 1.8GHz of processing power). They have improved some of its art work and it’s in good shape. I think now its working more stable more than it ever did. And maybe some of you want see any difference but believe me it has improved, GNOME is used to be like that. GNOME developers never breaks it simplicity.

KDE4.1

KDE4.1

Then I installed ‘kubuntu8.10’ into My PC. It took about 17minutes. I was tempting to try this out from a long time because I m kind a KDE guy. It was KDE4.1. yaa…. By all means it has changed a lot! I mean a ‘lot’! It’s with all kind of fancy widgets and smashing stuff, finished with an awesome art work. Seems to be KDE developers have worked hard past few days. But actually it didn’t fit for me. Because I felt it puts too much weight on my 512MB RAM card (it requires 256MB of minimum RAM, so I got twice), I felt that its simplicity has taken away. I felt some day its going to be like ‘vista’ (which freaks me out and don’t like). But I’m not telling KDE4.1 is bad or confusing the user. It has lots of good new things. This is something I felt personally, so may be you’ll like it so much. But I personally like KDE3.5 more than KDE4.1

Linux-Mint5
Linux-Mint5

Linux mint5…well before ‘5’ ill tell you about ‘4’. I also wrote a post about linux mint4 Daryna recommending to use it. With no doubts I still say its a cool/awesome distro. But! Sometimes its a disaster! Because it gets crash a lot and have problems on stability. For this purpose Linux mint developing team has gave a great answer. Its Linux Mint5. I’m using Mint5 Elyssa from the day its been out and I still didn’t experience any errors (I don’t know, maybe its ‘Crash Handler’ is not working! Just joking). It comes with KDE3.5.9 and comes with all the useful packages and codex (which I mentioned early in my old post about Daryna). Fun to work with, I recommend this for every one to use.

Creating .iso Files

Its kind a cool to create .iso images in Linux because it don’t require any special software to do it. All you have to do is to handle some commands in CLI. So put your CD/DVD into the ROM and open up the terminal/konsole. I ll  show 3 methods to do this,

method 0.

              This is my favorite! Follow the code 😉

‘dd’ means disk dump. Actually this has to be ‘convert and copy’, but ‘cc’ is already using in gnu    compiler collection so they are using ‘dd’. ‘if‘ and ‘of‘ stands for input file and output file.This method makes the .iso file at your ‘/home’ directory by its default. I think this is the easiest way to finish the job.

Method 0
Method 0

 

 method 1.

               If your going to use this method first you should have to unmount your optical drive

 

Method

Method

 

method 2.

              mkisofs -o /path_to_.iso_file /path_to_optical_drive

So this is it. There can be many other ways to create .iso files. Thats because GNU/Linux means ‘choice of options’. Enjoy…..! 

 

 

Reinstalling the GRUB

      New Linux users like to keep windows in their computers while getting use to Linux. But I don’t recommend that because when they find something hard in Linux or something new to do in Linux, most of them just forget about everything and get it done in windows. So they won’t learn anything new.

             However most new users think whenever they run a new installation of Windows the GRUB gets disappear so they also have to reinstall Linux. But that’s not the way! Oops, I almost forgot to tell what GRUB is. Well GRUB stands for GRand Unified Bootloader. It’s a flexible and a powerful boot loader which comes with Linux. It’s useful when we use more than one operating system in a single PC.

            So the reason for the disappearance of GRUB is when user installs Windows or any other OS after a Linux installation, the newly installed OS rewrites the MBR (Master Boot Record) with its own boot loader. OK then this is the way to re-establish the GRUB.

       0. Boot the machine from your Live CD/DVD.

 

1.      Open a terminal/konsole and get into root mode by giving

sudo  su

 

            2.Then type ‘grub’ and press enter. This allows the user to run the grub shell.

 

3. Setting the root device. Root device means the partition which contains the ‘/boot’ directory. If you’re not sure with that, you can find the corresponding partition by giving,

grub> find  /boot/grub/stage1

                        I have resulted this,

 

grub> find  /boot/grub/stage1

grub> find /boot/grub/stage1

            This says my hard disk number is 1 and partition number is 3.

            Note: hard disk numbers and partition numbers are starting from 0.

(According to me, this is the 4th partition of my 2nd hard disk)

                        Now, I’m setting it as the root device.

                        grub>root  (hd1,3)

 

4.After setting the root device correctly run the following command,

 grub>setup  (hd1)

            This tells to install the GRUB to the MBR of the 2nd hard disk.

                       

            5.Now exit from the grub shell

                          grub>quit

 

   The missing GRUB is back on business. 

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