Awesome to work in CLI [Not for Masters but for Beginners]

Lets say its HOT! I just started to work in command line. Its awesome, its reliable, fast and powerful. So this is to give some basics of CLI for beginners.  First I started it with getting know to move around the the file system. Because its always good to start in level 0.

            Fire up your terminel/konsole (I prefer Yakuake for this. But its upto you to make the choice). Type the following commands,

pwd        it gives the present working directory. 



ls              show you the directories and files which is in your present/home                                              directory



cd             user can access a  directory wich is in the home diretory by giving                                              the spesific directory name with cd

                                    example: cd directory_name


cd ..          user can exit/go back from the current directory to its parent directory


ls           list the items in the directory.  If the user wants to view this info in long format, type ls -l

               If he/she wants to the view all the files including the hidden files, he/she can use ls -al or ls a


When using this ls command, it explains a lot. consider the example,


ls -l

ls -l



I have divided this into 9 parts to make it easy to explain.

  1. the 1st character is to say the file type.  ‘d’ = directory ,’-‘ = normal file & ‘l’ = symbolic link
  2. indicates the  permission pattern. In here there are 3 types of parties and gives permission for 3 different type of actions. The 3 parties are,

A-  Owner of  file                     B-  Member of Group              C- World

The 3 actions are,

r- read              w- write           x- execute

According to my example, the Owner have permission to Read, Write and Execute. But the Group member and World have permission only to Read and Execute.

  1.  Number of  links to file or directory contents
  2. Owners name
  3. Name of the group
  4. Size of the file
  5. Date last modified
  6. Time last modified
  7. Name of the directory/file. According to me the directory name is ‘Blender’



 Ok now I type su and enter root password to get root privileges. then I type,

chmod 575 Blender  and press enter.

Notice the difference,


chmod-575 blender

chmod-575 blender

            The permission pattern has changed. The reason is,

7=111 in binary = rwx and 5= 101 in binary = r-x  . This is the way to assign permision.


            You can change the ‘Group’ by giving the following command,

chgrp user file                        watch how I have don it,



to change the ownership give this command,

chown name file          same as the above.

            Ok enough CLI for this post. But here on I m going to continue this awesome work and share the experience with you! Finally command your computer to shutdown after a minute !

            shoutdown  1



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